CREDIT: FERMIN LEAL/EDSOURCE TODAYA rural school bus heads out to a campus to pick up students.Walking through the hallways of Tranquility Elementary School, Principal Matt Kinnunen regularly pokes his head into classrooms to check on his teachers, especially the newer ones.
He asks about their day, assists them with student lessons and offers advice. It’s part of a routine to help them feel valued and supported. And maybe that will keep a few from leaving the small, rural campus in California’s Central Valley, a region hit especially hard by the state’s ongoing teacher shortage.
Kinnunen’s school is one of six that make up Golden Plains Unified, a 1,770-student district 40 miles west of Fresno that spreads across three tiny towns and 16,600 acres of mostly almond, raisin and cotton farms.
For the past few years, Golden Plains’ schools have struggled to recruit and retain teachers – and it’s only getting worse. This reflects a challenge that many rural districts are experiencing. For a range of reasons, include their remoteness, their generally small size and a lack of media coverage, teacher shortages in rural districts have received far less attention than those in inner-city schools. The state’s Department of Education also doesn’t have a system for identifying whether districts are rural, urban or suburban, at least in part because more often than not, a district doesn’t fit neatly into one of those categories.
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Currently, 12 of the 84 Golden Plains Unified teachers have either intern credentials or permits, meaning they haven’t finished teacher preparation programs but were hired because of the district’s limited options.
Kinnunen, overseeing the campus in the town of Tranquility, the size of six square blocks with 800 residents, knows the problem well. Two new teachers he hired this summer quit before the first day of classes after they received better last-minute offers elsewhere.
“It’s difficult to attract and keep teachers when they’re pulled and poached away,” Tranquility Elementary Principal Matt Kinnunen said.
To cover the classes, administrators assigned four intern or permit teachers. That represents one-third of Tranquility’s entire teaching staff.
Meanwhile, two veteran teachers have already told him they’re leaving at the end of the school year for jobs in more urban areas closer to their homes. And he still doesn’t know whether another might retire.
“It’s difficult to attract and keep teachers when they’re pulled and poached away,” he said.
Many candidates either reject a job at Golden Plains because they can more easily find work in more urban districts, or they accept a job in the district, then leave after a year or two for districts with better pay or benefits.
“It’s become tougher to develop a consistency of teachers for our students,” said Kinnunen, who grew up in the nearby town of San Joaquin, the son of an alfalfa and wheat farmer.
Golden Plains Unified resembles many rural districts across California struggling with a shortage of qualified teachers, resulting in high rates of underprepared teachers and plenty of vacancies.
Four of the six Golden Plains Unified campuses border sprawling farms that stretch to the horizon. The district’s students are mostly poor and learning English. They live predominantly in the towns of Tranquility, San Joaquin and Helm. The two-lane roads that traverse through the region primarily carry pick-up trucks, tractors and other farm equipment, but don’t have a single traffic light. Packing houses, silos and mills far outnumber restaurants and markets.
CREDIT: FERMIN LEAL/EDSOURCE TODAYTranquility Elementary Principal Matt Kinnunen fills in for a teacher during a math lesson.And following several years of the state’s unforgiving drought, dozens of businesses have shuttered, leaving behind empty storefronts and vacant lots. This has caused a surge in families moving around the Central Valley in search of steady work. These factors add more layers to the already tough task of bringing in new teachers.
“Because of our population and our isolation, we used to look for a special type of teacher who could work well in this type of environment,” said Maria Bustos-Flores, director of human resources at Golden Plains Unified.
“We looked for those with incredible patience, with a talent for bringing out the best from students who don’t always have the same opportunities,” she said. “Bilingual teachers were also at the top of our list.”
But now, Golden Plains Unified has trouble finding any type of teacher. Recruiters from the district have spent much of the winter and spring visiting teaching colleges statewide, combing through online job boards, such as EdJoin, and attending regional job fairs, where they set up tables alongside dozens of other districts, who are also starved for new teachers.
“We’ve been recruiting for weeks for next school year and found that most fully credentialed candidates already found jobs elsewhere,” Bustos-Flores said.
That’s forced the district to rely more heavily on hiring intern teachers and those with short-term permits to ensure every classroom is staffed.
Intern teachers are those who get limited training during the summer preceding the school year, and then begin teaching while they work to get their full credential by taking night and weekend classes. Permits can be issued to substitute teachers who don’t need a credential for up to 90 days in order to fill a temporary staffing vacancy. Permit teachers often have just started, or often haven’t begun, teacher training programs. These permits can be renewed after 90 days if the district has yet to hire a fully credentialed replacement. Waivers are given to teachers who are credentialed in one subject, but are assigned to teach another. Golden Plains has no teachers with waivers.
The trend is not unique to Golden Plains. In fact, California’s Commission on Teacher Credentialing issued more than 10,000 permits, waivers and intern credentials last year, double what it did in 2014. Although these teachers still comprise a tiny proportion of the more than 300,000 teachers in California, the fact that their numbers are increasing has raised concerns among educators and researchers.
Note: Golden Plains Unified has no teachers with waivers. Source: California Commission on Teacher Credentialing
“The most recent evidence shows that… substandard credentials and permits are rapidly increasing,” according to a report released in February by the Learning Policy Institute, a Palo Alto-based research and policy organization. The institute has issued a series of reports and policy briefs for over a year chronicling school districts’ struggle to recruit and retain enough teachers to fill all vacancies.
“There are thousands of students today in classrooms with teachers who are wholly unprepared. Schools in urban and rural areas or with low-income, high-minority, and/or high-English learner student populations may continue to struggle to find qualified teachers,” according to the report.
Golden Plains ranks among the top 100 districts out of the more than 1,000 statewide for the rate of permits and intern credentials based on student enrollment, according to state commission data.
Everyone pitching in
For Golden Plain’s veteran teachers, principals and other staff, working with so many underprepared teachers often means additional work for them.
Kinnunen, the Tranquility principal, said that more than halfway through the school year, his four intern and permit teachers now run their classrooms as efficiently as their veteran peers. But he credits his entire staff for helping them get up to speed.
At the start of the school year, the principal spent much of the school day working with veteran teachers as they mentored those with temporary credentials. They helped them build lessons and offered guidance for how to lead a classroom.
“Veteran teachers have to buy into this because it means extra work on top of their normal class loads,” he said.
Sixth-grade teacher Maria Teresa Fernandez is the veteran Kinnunen often turns to. Fernandez, a Mexican-born immigrant who moved to the country at the age of 11, joined Golden Plains Unified six years ago as a kindergarten teacher.
“It is really hard to see (newer) teachers leave my district after the first year or sometimes after a couple of months,” said Fernandez, who commutes to work from Fresno. “This is heartbreaking for the students because they have to go through the change constantly.”
CREDIT: FERMIN LEAL/EDSOURCE TODAYMaria Teresa Fernandez, a teacher at Tranquility Elementary in the Central Valley, leads her students in a lesson.“The most rewarding experience I get working in Tranquility is the connection I have with the community,” said Fernandez, a bilingual teacher. “If other teachers build the same connection, then they’re less likely to leave.”
Unique challenges for hiring, retaining teachers
Phoua Vang, a 5th-grade teacher, arrived at San Joaquin Elementary three years ago with an intern credential.
The resident of Clovis, a suburb of Fresno, decided to stay at Golden Plains Unified after she completed her training program because she enjoyed working at a small district and school where all the teachers knew each other, allowing for constant sharing of ideas and best practices.
But a few weeks ago, Vang told her principal that her husband’s job is pulling them away at the end of the year to the city of Modesto, about 150 miles away. Vang later decided to stay at Tranquility through the end of next year.
“It wasn’t a decision based on anything having to do with the district,” she said. “I like my job. I love my students. But for my family, there are better opportunities in more urban communities.”
CREDIT: FERMIN LEAL/EDSOURCE TODAYFifth-grade teacher Phoua Vang helps her students solve a problem during a recent lesson at Tranquility Elementary in the Central Valley.That’s the challenge many rural districts now face amid the state’s teacher shortage, said Desiree Carver-Thomas, a researcher at the Learning Policy Institute. The institute has concluded that the teacher shortage is the most severe among rural and inner-city districts. By subject, the institute has found that special education, math, science and bilingual education have the highest demand.
Rural districts have traditionally struggled to compete for teachers with many urban and suburban districts. But following the recession, when thousands of teachers statewide left the profession and fewer students entered teacher training programs, rural districts’ ability to attract candidates sunk even further.
Rural districts tend to have fewer preparation and mentoring programs to help them recruit and retain teachers because their campuses are smaller and more isolated not only from other districts, but also from sister schools within the same district, Carver-Thomas said. That often prevents rural districts from pooling resources, she said. By comparison, districts that employ hundreds or thousands of teachers located in more urban areas can more easily share resources.
Lower starting salaries in rural districts also help syphon candidates away to larger, more urban districts, Carver-Thomas said.
Urban districts generally have to offer higher salaries because of the higher cost of living in those communities. At Golden Plains Unified, the starting teacher salary is currently $40,253, which is comparable to other neighboring rural districts. But it lags behind the $45,000 starting salary at the Fresno Unified School District, part of a region of about 1 million residents, where most of the Golden Plains Unified teachers live.
The district is also losing teachers to retirement faster than it can hire replacements. Sixteen teachers retired last school year, and officials expect just as many this school year. Statewide high retirement rates are outpacing the rates of people entering the profession, with an estimated 25 percent of the state’s teaching workforce expected to retire between 2014 and 2024, according to an October report from the research institute Regional Education Laboratory West at WestEd.
Growing a workforce
Next year, Golden Plains will increase a signing bonus initiative to help encourage more teaching candidates to choose the district.
This school year, all new teachers received a $3,000 signing bonus. For 2017-18, bilingual teachers hired by the district will receive $7,300, while all other new hires will receive $5,000.
“The bonuses can make some difference, but it’s not a long-term solution,” said Bustos-Flores, the district’s director of Human Resources.
The district has also put a stronger focus on growing its workforce from within, by encouraging its students to choose teaching as a profession, then return to the community after they earn their credential.
Officials have discussed forming a teacher career pathway, a high school program that blends academics with hands-on work experience to prepare students for careers as teachers.
In the meantime, teachers, principals and counselors point to success stories of local Golden Plains Unified graduates who now work at the district.
They include Kinnunen, the Tranquility principal, who worked as a chemical salesman after earning an agriculture degree at Fresno State.
“I worked hard for three months, but I felt empty,” he said.
He sought advice from his mother, a Golden Plains Unified teacher then, and began substitute teaching before he earned his credential, then spent eight years in the classroom at San Joaquin Elementary.
CREDIT: FERMIN LEAL/EDSOURCE TODAYSalvador Gomez, a teacher with a temporary credential, answers a student’s question during a recent lesson.Salvador Gomez, a 7th-grade permit teacher at Tranquility, grew up five minutes from campus.
“When I watch these kids, it’s like I’m watching myself at that age,” he said.
Gomez, the son of immigrant farmworkers, proudly wears his blue-and-yellow “Tranquility Tigers Alumni” T-shirt to class at least once a week.
“By working here, I feel like I’m giving something back to the school that did so much for me as a child,” he said. “Maybe I can serve as inspiration to one or two of my students who might someday decide they want to become Golden Plains teachers too.”
CountyDistrictInternPermitWaiverEnrollmentRateAlamedaAlameda City Unified7160111012.07AlamedaAlbany City Unified211038223.40AlamedaBerkeley Unified1150104621.53AlamedaCastro Valley Unified41093660.53AlamedaDublin Unified23099650.50AlamedaEmery Unified0306984.30AlamedaFremont Unified17170348520.98AlamedaHayward Unified10201228461.36AlamedaLivermore Valley Joint Unified7240140522.21AlamedaNew Haven Unified9140121711.89AlamedaNewark Unified38060131.83AlamedaOakland Unified9017130490985.93AlamedaPiedmont City Unified04027081.48AlamedaPleasanton Unified4140147541.22AlamedaSan Leandro Unified66085601.40AlamedaSan Lorenzo Unified9121119651.84AmadorAmador County Office of Education40023117.32AmadorAmador County Unified05038291.31ButteBiggs Unified1006021.66ButteButte County Office of Education32011164.48ButteChico Unified330138490.43ButteOroville Union High35022273.59ButteParadise Unified51042891.40CalaverasCalaveras County Office of Education0305695.27CalaverasCalaveras Unified26029962.67CalaverasMark Twain Union Elementary1108042.49ColusaColusa County Office of Education1203758.00ColusaColusa Unified01014620.68ColusaMaxwell Unified1103296.08ColusaPierce Joint Unified23014863.36ColusaWilliams Unified22013452.97Contra CostaAcalanes Union High20055460.36Contra CostaAntioch Unified10140178741.34Contra CostaBrentwood Union Elementary23087380.57Contra CostaByron Union Elementary01021980.45Contra CostaContra Costa County Office of Education97041923.82Contra CostaJohn Swett Unified25017543.99Contra CostaKnightsen Elementary1005341.87Contra CostaLafayette Elementary10035760.28Contra CostaLiberty Union High42081850.73Contra CostaMartinez Unified31041990.95Contra CostaMoraga Elementary01018860.53Contra CostaMt. Diablo Unified9320320051.28Contra CostaOakley Union Elementary512250083.79Contra CostaOrinda Union Elementary10025370.39Contra CostaPittsburg Unified3123110761.63Contra CostaSan Ramon Valley Unified9382322551.52Contra CostaWalnut Creek Elementary03136131.11Contra CostaWest Contra Costa Unified593810309733.45Del NorteDel Norte County Office of Education0205883.40Del NorteDel Norte County Unified21035720.84El DoradoBlack Oak Mine Unified02013171.52El DoradoBuckeye Union Elementary02052180.38El DoradoEl Dorado County Office of Education5209597.30El DoradoEl Dorado Union High38066881.64El DoradoLake Tahoe Unified02039960.50El DoradoMother Lode Union Elementary01010630.94El DoradoPioneer Union Elementary01019100.52El DoradoPlacerville Union Elementary01012770.78El DoradoPollock Pines Elementary1106972.87El DoradoRescue Union Elementary14036721.36FresnoBig Creek Elementary0105916.95FresnoBurrel Union Elementary35012066.67FresnoCaruthers Unified03014242.11FresnoCentral Unified15270157172.67FresnoClovis Unified16240418830.96FresnoCoalinga-Huron Unified620144476.07FresnoFirebaugh-Las Deltas Unified711022667.94FresnoFowler Unified17025313.16FresnoFresno County Office of Education77222537.10FresnoFresno Unified551120734602.27FresnoGolden Plains Unified111017786.75FresnoKerman Unified313050643.16FresnoKings Canyon Joint Unified1019097172.98FresnoKingsburg Elementary Charter01022520.44FresnoKingsburg Elementary Charter32022522.22FresnoKingsburg Joint Union High11011861.69FresnoLaton Joint Unified27070112.84FresnoMendota Unified711032155.60FresnoParlier Unified412033814.73FresnoRiverdale Joint Unified32016103.11FresnoSanger Unified4120114381.40FresnoSelma Unified87065412.29FresnoSierra Unified01013110.76FresnoWashington Colony Elementary1004252.35FresnoWashington Unified48230454.60FresnoWashington Unified482110121.27FresnoWestside Elementary0109641.04GlennCapay Joint Union Elementary1001895.29GlennGlenn County Office of Education1014584.37GlennOrland Joint Unified40021831.83GlennPrinceton Joint Unified1001646.10GlennWillows Unified10014350.70HumboldtEureka City Schools01037340.27HumboldtFerndale Unified1005251.90HumboldtFortuna Union High10011340.88HumboldtHydesville Elementary0101975.08HumboldtLoleta Union Elementary0102913.44HumboldtMattole Unified1107212.77HumboldtTrinidad Union Elementary1001775.65ImperialBrawley Elementary26139112.30ImperialCalexico Unified815192662.59ImperialCalipatria Unified56011449.62ImperialCentral Union High23041201.21ImperialEl Centro Elementary49062312.09ImperialHeber Elementary23012184.11ImperialHoltville Unified48015857.57ImperialImperial County Office of Education210458527.35ImperialImperial Unified23040361.24ImperialMcCabe Union Elementary23013643.67ImperialMeadows Union Elementary1004592.18ImperialSan Pasqual Valley Unified0707259.66ImperialSeeley Union Elementary0103372.97ImperialWestmorland Union Elementary0103592.79InyoDeath Valley Unified0102934.48InyoOwens Valley Unified1117540.00KernArvin Union36030692.93KernBakersfield City56843302224.73KernBeardsley Elementary42017823.37KernButtonwillow Union Elementary0103792.64KernCaliente Union Elementary1005318.87KernDelano Joint Union High624542058.32KernDelano Union Elementary412074152.16KernDi Giorgio Elementary1102139.39KernEdison Elementary42110746.52KernEl Tejon Unified1207643.93KernElk Hills Elementary11019610.20KernFairfax Elementary38025404.33KernFruitvale Elementary15032371.85KernGeneral Shafter Elementary21015319.61KernGreenfield Union39192711.40KernKern County Office of Education18257446811.19KernKern Union High School19530380701.89KernKernville Union Elementary2608779.12KernLakeside Union21013182.28KernLamont Elementary28030343.30KernLost Hills Union Elementary1215547.22KernMaricopa Unified04021381.87KernMcFarland Unified315035445.08KernMojave Unified52227133.32KernMuroc Joint Unified13019162.09KernNorris Elementary26040731.96KernPanama-Buena Vista Union450175450.51KernRichland Union Elementary42035081.71KernRio Bravo-Greeley Union Elementary10010400.96KernRosedale Union Elementary66055142.18KernSemitropic Elementary0202149.35KernSierra Sands Unified48849634.03KernSouth Fork Union12024112.45KernSouthern Kern Unified518132147.47KernStandard Elementary35130682.93KernTaft City89020998.10KernTaft Union High02010481.91KernTehachapi Unified76142323.31KernWasco Union Elementary610036414.39KernWasco Union High01118261.10KingsArmona Union Elementary32016083.11KingsCentral Union Elementary01017060.59KingsCorcoran Joint Unified517033006.67KingsHanford Elementary97058902.72KingsHanford Joint Union High22037721.06KingsKings County Office of Education57038731.01KingsKings River-Hardwick Union Elementary0107901.27KingsKit Carson Union Elementary1406138.16KingsLakeside Union Elementary22065660.61KingsLemoore Union Elementary1017031908.46KingsLemoore Union High47022754.84KingsPioneer Union Elementary11019101.05KingsReef-Sunset Unified17126123.45LakeKelseyville Unified33016943.54LakeKonocti Unified623032448.94LakeLakeport Unified02015581.28LakeLucerne Elementary0102553.92LakeMiddletown Unified23016543.02LassenBig Valley Joint Unified20016412.20LassenJanesville Union Elementary0103512.85LassenJohnstonville Elementary12020414.71LassenLassen County Office of Education14025200.00LassenLassen Union High0208392.38LassenRavendale-Termo Elementary0107081.41LassenRichmond Elementary0102124.72LassenWestwood Unified0303887.73Los AngelesABC Unified221208630.24Los AngelesActon-Agua Dulce Unified20074750.27Los AngelesAntelope Valley Union High1570241270.91Los AngelesArcadia Unified13095230.42Los AngelesAzusa Unified53089000.90Los AngelesBassett Unified02037890.53Los AngelesBellflower Unified800126780.63Los AngelesBonita Unified400102690.39Los AngelesBurbank Unified180160810.56Los AngelesCastaic Union20023540.85Los AngelesCentinela Valley Union High101076821.43Los AngelesCharter Oak Unified12049540.61Los AngelesClaremont Unified11069730.29Los AngelesCompton Unified1500218350.69Los AngelesCovina-Valley Unified110119060.17Los AngelesCulver City Unified23067630.74Los AngelesDowney Unified310226490.18Los AngelesDuarte Unified30038530.78Los AngelesEast Whittier City Elementary01088910.11Los AngelesEastside Union Elementary16034242.04Los AngelesEl Monte City20087090.23Los AngelesEl Monte Union High01091150.11Los AngelesEl Rancho Unified13088660.45Los AngelesGlendale Unified1110261170.46Los AngelesGlendora Unified21076070.39Los AngelesHacienda la Puente Unified300193670.15Los AngelesHawthorne10086890.12Los AngelesInglewood Unified160131620.53Los AngelesKeppel Union Elementary21026271.14Los AngelesLa Canada Unified01040930.24Los AngelesLancaster Elementary1620152911.18Los AngelesLas Virgenes Unified340113740.62Los AngelesLawndale Elementary10061920.16Los AngelesLittle Lake City Elementary12043820.68Los AngelesLong Beach Unified7473778120.73Los AngelesLos Angeles County Office of Education29076871.43Los AngelesLos Angeles Unified387401746393371.35Los AngelesLynwood Unified640148300.67Los AngelesManhattan Beach Unified12067740.44Los AngelesMontebello Unified090283230.32Los AngelesNewhall24066500.90Los AngelesNorwalk-La Mirada Unified810187040.48Los AngelesPalmdale Elementary2120220060.64Los AngelesPalos Verdes Peninsula Unified100114990.09Los AngelesParamount Unified710155470.51Los AngelesPasadena Unified9100184921.03Los AngelesPomona Unified1100247160.45Los AngelesRedondo Beach Unified10095290.10Los AngelesRowland Unified110146030.14Los AngelesSan Gabriel Unified10064300.16Los AngelesSanta Monica-Malibu Unified021112490.27Los AngelesSouth Pasadena Unified11047330.42Los AngelesSulphur Springs Union12053830.56Los AngelesTemple City Unified02058930.34Los AngelesTorrance Unified260238850.33Los AngelesWalnut Valley Unified010144680.07Los AngelesWest Covina Unified500137120.36Los AngelesWestside Union Elementary152090701.87Los AngelesWilliam S. Hart Union High670271550.48MaderaBass Lake Joint Union Elementary1108652.31MaderaChawanakee Unified15010755.58MaderaChowchilla Elementary14021682.31MaderaChowchilla Union High01010870.92MaderaGolden Valley Unified20018801.06MaderaMadera County Office of Education115095816.70MaderaMadera Unified23400205303.07MaderaRaymond-Knowles Union Elementary0109011.11MarinDixie Elementary01019890.50MarinMarin County Office of Education12025711.67MarinMill Valley Elementary11032280.62MarinNovato Unified16079730.88MarinReed Union Elementary12015401.95MarinRoss Elementary1003852.60MarinRoss Valley Elementary24023302.58MarinSan Rafael City Elementary24047491.26MarinSan Rafael City High10024200.41MarinShoreline Unified0205133.90MariposaMariposa County Unified11018711.07MendocinoAnderson Valley Unified2305229.58MendocinoFort Bragg Unified19019345.17MendocinoLaytonville Unified22039510.13MendocinoMendocino County Office of Education0209321.51MendocinoMendocino Unified0105431.84MendocinoPoint Arena Joint Union High02114520.69MendocinoPotter Valley Community Unified03027610.87MendocinoRound Valley Unified1204277.03MendocinoUkiah Unified722165114.61MendocinoWillits Unified14018702.67MercedAtwater Elementary66048992.45MercedBallico-Cressey Elementary0103822.62MercedDelhi Unified28026693.75MercedEl Nido Elementary0101536.54MercedGustine Unified32018882.65MercedHilmar Unified11022910.87MercedLe Grand Union High1005041.98MercedLivingston Union11025580.78MercedLos Banos Unified8320105203.80MercedMcSwain Union Elementary0208222.43MercedMerced City Elementary3360108883.58MercedMerced County Office of Education19110117325.58MercedMerced Union High7270102033.33MercedPlainsburg Union Elementary11011916.81MercedPlanada Elementary1408006.25ModocModoc County Office of Education14040125.00ModocModoc Joint Unified0208322.40ModocSurprise Valley Joint Unified0101377.30MonoEastern Sierra Unified1203777.96MonoMammoth Unified01011930.84MontereyCarmel Unified01025100.40MontereyGonzales Unified715124239.49MontereyGreenfield Union Elementary724035108.83MontereyMission Union Elementary1001287.81MontereyMonterey County Office of Education15019433.09MontereyMonterey Peninsula Unified790106331.50MontereyNorth Monterey County Unified82045552.20MontereySalinas City Elementary723191053.40MontereySalinas Union High19150146912.31MontereySan Antonio Union Elementary1001636.13MontereySan Ardo Union Elementary0101039.71MontereySanta Rita Union Elementary70034252.04MontereySoledad Unified831048618.02MontereySouth Monterey County Joint Union High34021593.24MontereyWashington Union Elementary0108881.13NapaNapa County Office of Education12011127.03NapaNapa Valley Unified12153184791.62NevadaGrass Valley Elementary11017451.15NevadaNevada County Office of Education04035201.14NevadaNevada Joint Union High22129471.70NevadaTwin Ridges Elementary0101059.52OrangeAnaheim Union High520312760.22OrangeBrea-Olinda Unified20058560.34OrangeCapistrano Unified400538780.07OrangeCentralia Elementary10044370.23OrangeFountain Valley Elementary10063710.16OrangeFullerton Elementary130135200.30OrangeFullerton Joint Union High110142350.14OrangeGarden Grove Unified0180452520.40OrangeHuntington Beach Union High100160480.06OrangeIrvine Unified700323190.22OrangeLa Habra City Elementary01049130.20OrangeLaguna Beach Unified03030290.99OrangeNewport-Mesa Unified0100217360.46OrangeOcean View010114420.09OrangeOrange County Department of Education21050370.60OrangeOrange Unified660288990.42OrangePlacentia-Yorba Linda Unified300258260.12OrangeSaddleback Valley Unified530287060.28OrangeSanta Ana Unified600559090.11OrangeTustin Unified210240790.12PlacerAuburn Union Elementary01020420.49PlacerColfax Elementary1003273.06PlacerDry Creek Joint Elementary02066940.30PlacerForesthill Union Elementary1003992.51PlacerLoomis Union Elementary21040270.74PlacerNewcastle Elementary11021020.95PlacerPlacer County Office of Education0106731.49PlacerPlacer Hills Union Elementary1007691.30PlacerPlacer Union High10041040.24PlacerRocklin Unified130129850.31PlacerRoseville City Elementary100100840.10PlacerRoseville Joint Union High100102000.10PlacerTahoe-Truckee Unified22040101.00PlacerWestern Placer Unified01090920.11PlumasPlumas County Office of Education0102441.67PlumasPlumas Unified22021721.84RiversideAlvord Unified320194660.26RiversideBanning Unified31045270.88RiversideBeaumont Unified03096270.31RiversideCoachella Valley Unified1870188611.33RiversideCorona-Norco Unified1260533540.51RiversideDesert Sands Unified11152287190.97RiversideHemet Unified8290214801.72RiversideJurupa Unified720192820.47RiversideLake Elsinore Unified560222050.50RiversideMenifee Union Elementary250112260.62RiversideMoreno Valley Unified19140339420.97RiversideMurrieta Valley Unified4221228251.18RiversideNuview Union14026881.86RiversidePalm Springs Unified750233480.51RiversidePalo Verde Unified35531494.13RiversidePerris Elementary01058820.17RiversidePerris Union High800107440.74RiversideRiverside County Office of Education2415083684.66RiversideRiverside Unified740424620.26RiversideSan Jacinto Unified670110541.18RiversideTemecula Valley Unified481299960.43RiversideVal Verde Unified7150198621.11SacramentoArcohe Union Elementary32041212.14SacramentoElk Grove Unified12420627670.86SacramentoElverta Joint Elementary2003286.10SacramentoFolsom-Cordova Unified310198650.20SacramentoGalt Joint Union Elementary01036510.27SacramentoGalt Joint Union High31022341.79SacramentoNatomas Unified630142980.63SacramentoRobla Elementary20021700.92SacramentoSacramento City Unified27590468431.84SacramentoSacramento County Office of Education50020392.45SacramentoSan Juan Unified11410495641.05SacramentoTwin Rivers Unified9170311370.84San BenitoAromas/San Juan Unified14011504.35San BenitoHollister710056543.01San BenitoJefferson Elementary10094920.11San BenitoSan Benito County Office of Education2006729.85San BenitoSan Benito High18030102.99San BenitoSouthside Elementary0102414.15San BernardinoAdelanto Elementary300109700.27San BernardinoAlta Loma Elementary01059060.17San BernardinoApple Valley Unified8160142381.69San BernardinoBarstow Unified712060243.15San BernardinoBear Valley Unified10022960.44San BernardinoCentral Elementary10046820.21San BernardinoChaffey Joint Union High110243610.08San BernardinoChino Valley Unified420293140.20San BernardinoColton Joint Unified1100232880.47San BernardinoEtiwanda Elementary380138660.79San BernardinoFontana Unified1021387420.34San BernardinoHesperia Unified28231239882.17San BernardinoLucerne Valley Unified03023461.28San BernardinoMorongo Unified3130102651.56San BernardinoOntario-Montclair420219520.27San BernardinoOro Grande Elementary61037111.89San BernardinoRedlands Unified200212640.09San BernardinoRialto Unified930259940.46San BernardinoRim of the World Unified31036081.11San BernardinoSan Bernardino City Unified36150533030.96San BernardinoSan Bernardino County Office of Education35128723.13San BernardinoSilver Valley Unified15021042.85San BernardinoSnowline Joint Unified59077981.80San BernardinoTrona Joint Unified1102557.84San BernardinoUpland Unified740111380.99San BernardinoVictor Elementary15150123062.44San BernardinoVictor Valley Union High11161138122.03San BernardinoYucaipa-Calimesa Joint Unified52098890.71San DiegoAlpine Union Elementary11017071.17San DiegoBonsall Unified10029590.34San DiegoBorrego Springs Unified0207722.59San DiegoCardiff Elementary1107302.74San DiegoChula Vista Elementary891302300.60San DiegoEscondido Union High200195670.10San DiegoFallbrook Union Elementary04050560.79San DiegoFallbrook Union High12023121.30San DiegoGrossmont Union High670218600.59San DiegoLa Mesa-Spring Valley240121970.49San DiegoLakeside Union Elementary05065660.76San DiegoMountain Empire Unified13028311.41San DiegoNational Elementary10060500.17San DiegoOceanside Unified3140210240.81San DiegoPoway Unified410357710.14San DiegoRamona City Unified01055930.18San DiegoSan Diego County Office of Education30034860.86San DiegoSan Diego Unified5323501293802.23San DiegoSan Dieguito Union High100127260.08San DiegoSan Marcos Unified4170208131.01San DiegoSan Ysidro Elementary45048081.87San DiegoSouth Bay Union01027360.37San DiegoSweetwater Union High30550410502.07San DiegoValley Center-Pauma Unified24040871.47San DiegoVista Unified330252440.24San DiegoWarner Unified01011450.87San FranciscoSan Francisco Unified6121716588654.99San JoaquinBanta Elementary10012020.83San JoaquinEscalon Unified20028350.71San JoaquinJefferson Elementary02094920.21San JoaquinLincoln Unified2218092984.30San JoaquinLinden Unified43022233.15San JoaquinLodi Unified3490303951.41San JoaquinManteca Unified24222232042.07San JoaquinNew Jerusalem Elementary76050152.59San JoaquinRipon Unified40039601.01San JoaquinSan Joaquin County Office of Education14271358511.72San JoaquinStockton Unified51800403243.25San JoaquinTracy Joint Unified10220167021.92San Luis ObispoAtascadero Unified21047010.64San Luis ObispoLucia Mar Unified2140107041.49San Luis ObispoPaso Robles Joint Unified24067140.89San Luis ObispoSan Luis Coastal Unified02076380.26San Luis ObispoSan Luis Obispo County Office of Education0404778.39San MateoBayshore Elementary1203867.77San MateoBurlingame Elementary20033530.60San MateoJefferson Elementary33071370.84San MateoJefferson Union High73049262.03San MateoLa Honda-Pescadero Unified0103293.04San MateoLas Lomitas Elementary01013820.72San MateoMenlo Park City Elementary17029432.72San MateoMillbrae Elementary33024312.47San MateoPacifica03032050.94San MateoRavenswood City Elementary21040580.74San MateoRedwood City Elementary423191013.08San MateoSan Carlos Elementary24035241.70San MateoSan Mateo County Office of Education14030816.23San MateoSan Mateo Union High43086260.81San MateoSan Mateo-Foster City500119770.42San MateoSequoia Union High45097620.92San MateoSouth San Francisco Unified810189412.13San MateoWoodside Elementary0204094.89Santa BarbaraBlochman Union Elementary02012421.61Santa BarbaraBuellton Union Elementary0506128.17Santa BarbaraCarpinteria Unified03022271.35Santa BarbaraHope Elementary01012490.80Santa BarbaraLompoc Unified2141102151.66Santa BarbaraLos Olivos Elementary0101725.81Santa BarbaraOrcutt Union Elementary25052661.33Santa BarbaraSanta Barbara County Office of Education06027621.74Santa BarbaraSanta Barbara Unified1100154530.71Santa BarbaraSanta Maria Joint Union High08079001.01Santa BarbaraSanta Maria-Bonita050165840.30Santa BarbaraSanta Ynez Valley Union High0209972.01Santa ClaraAlum Rock Union Elementary17160120682.73Santa ClaraBerryessa Union Elementary40074520.54Santa ClaraCampbell Union High11076760.26Santa ClaraCupertino Union3120189480.79Santa ClaraEast Side Union High14341266841.84Santa ClaraEvergreen Elementary120122820.24Santa ClaraFranklin-McKinley Elementary130111140.36Santa ClaraFremont Union High910107360.93Santa ClaraGilroy Unified8140118521.86Santa ClaraLos Altos Elementary42046381.29Santa ClaraMilpitas Unified560102911.07Santa ClaraMorgan Hill Unified713091352.19Santa ClaraMountain View Whisman25050841.38Santa ClaraMountain View-Los Altos Union High31040280.99Santa ClaraOak Grove Elementary540106320.85Santa ClaraPalo Alto Unified740124850.88Santa ClaraSan Jose Unified18360324541.66Santa ClaraSanta Clara County Office of Education9190107952.59Santa ClaraSanta Clara Unified6100153881.04Santa ClaraSunnyvale53066401.20Santa ClaraUnion Elementary44056921.41Santa CruzLive Oak Elementary03021061.42Santa CruzPajaro Valley Unified14160203541.47Santa CruzSan Lorenzo Valley Unified01046440.22Santa CruzSanta Cruz City Elementary20022940.87Santa CruzSanta Cruz City High35046431.72Santa CruzSanta Cruz County Office of Education11013521.48Santa CruzScotts Valley Unified21025451.18Santa CruzSoquel Union Elementary02019791.01ShastaAnderson Union High11018441.08ShastaBella Vista Elementary1203518.55ShastaBlack Butte Union Elementary0102014.98ShastaCascade Union Elementary36011038.16ShastaCastle Rock Union Elementary0105817.24ShastaColumbia Elementary0307553.97ShastaCottonwood Union Elementary05010974.56ShastaEnterprise Elementary18036782.45ShastaFall River Joint Unified12011842.53ShastaGateway Unified05034291.46ShastaGrant Elementary0106141.63ShastaHappy Valley Union Elementary0105012.00ShastaJunction Elementary0103043.29ShastaNorth Cow Creek Elementary0202388.40ShastaOak Run Elementary0208224.39ShastaPacheco Union Elementary1005981.67ShastaRedding Elementary06033451.79ShastaShasta County Office of Education1206414.68ShastaShasta Union High11056720.35SierraSierra-Plumas Joint Unified0203815.25SiskiyouButte Valley Unified13029913.38SiskiyouDelphic Elementary0104621.74SiskiyouGrenada Elementary0101815.52SiskiyouLittle Shasta Elementary0106166.67SiskiyouMontague Elementary0101915.24SiskiyouScott Valley Unified1106473.09SiskiyouSiskiyou County Office of Education1305047.94SiskiyouSiskiyou Union High1205995.01SiskiyouWeed Union Elementary0202418.30SiskiyouYreka Union Elementary0109621.04SiskiyouYreka Union High1016453.10SolanoBenicia Unified11149470.61SolanoDixon Unified23037461.33SolanoFairfield-Suisun Unified12442215542.69SolanoSolano County Office of Education111048824.59SolanoTravis Unified33053951.11SolanoVacaville Unified4120128411.25SolanoVallejo City Unified12305147363.19SonomaBennett Valley Union Elementary01010350.97SonomaCloverdale Unified24013964.30SonomaCotati-Rohnert Park Unified73063721.57SonomaHealdsburg Unified11016741.19SonomaLiberty Elementary10013390.75SonomaPetaluma City Elementary21024521.22SonomaPetaluma Joint Union High30053370.56SonomaPiner-Olivet Union Elementary10014150.71SonomaSanta Rosa Elementary10054220.18SonomaSanta Rosa High690112951.33SonomaSonoma County Office of Education2406159.76SonomaSonoma Valley Unified48046102.60SonomaWest Sonoma County Union High01020150.50SonomaWindsor Unified12053490.56StanislausCeres Unified9140142691.61StanislausDenair Unified14012763.92StanislausEmpire Union Elementary35030492.62StanislausHart-Ransom Union Elementary11011421.75StanislausModesto City Elementary3120152720.98StanislausModesto City High2120151000.93StanislausNewman-Crows Landing Unified38029403.74StanislausOakdale Joint Unified27053001.70StanislausPatterson Joint Unified116060312.82StanislausRiverbank Unified58028544.56StanislausSalida Union Elementary11025020.80StanislausStanislaus County Office of Education610023326.86StanislausStanislaus Union Elementary43034052.06StanislausSylvan Union Elementary106084841.89StanislausTurlock Unified680140910.99StanislausValley Home Joint Elementary0101476.80StanislausWaterford Unified31038771.03SutterLive Oak Unified20018101.10SutterMeridian Elementary10010320.97SutterSutter County Office of Education14043511.49SutterWinship-Robbins02017311.56SutterYuba City Unified670133740.97TehamaAntelope Elementary0207582.64TehamaCorning Union Elementary02020740.96TehamaCorning Union High1209243.25TehamaGerber Union Elementary1004152.41TehamaLos Molinos Unified0105741.74TehamaRed Bluff Union Elementary32021782.30TrinityMountain Valley Unified1002753.64TrinityTrinity Alps Unified1106762.96TulareAllensworth Elementary0108611.63TulareAlpaugh Unified2407408.11TulareAlta Vista Elementary0205723.50TulareBurton Elementary1623244709.17TulareColumbine Elementary0101965.10TulareCutler-Orosi Joint Unified714040955.13TulareDinuba Unified620366384.37TulareDucor Union Elementary03015818.99TulareEarlimart Elementary19119615.61TulareExeter Unified410028864.85TulareFarmersville Unified02025800.78TulareHope Elementary12012492.40TulareLiberty Elementary33013394.48TulareLindsay Unified97142374.01TulareMonson-Sultana Joint Union Elementary0104512.22TulareOak Valley Union Elementary1005581.79TularePalo Verde Union Elementary0205363.73TularePixley Union Elementary28011099.02TularePleasant View Elementary28048620.58TularePorterville Unified20321141093.76TulareRichgrove Elementary1106513.07TulareRockford Elementary18037024.32TulareSequoia Union Elementary1003103.23TulareStone Corral Elementary1106643.01TulareStrathmore Union Elementary0108411.19TulareSundale Union Elementary1108122.46TulareSunnyside Union Elementary1103485.75TulareTerra Bella Union Elementary1109232.17TulareThree Rivers Union Elementary1001436.99TulareTulare County Office of Education98126526.79TulareTulare Joint Union High52053581.31TulareVisalia Unified41675285463.96TulareWaukena Joint Union Elementary0202398.37TulareWoodlake Unified611127726.49TuolumneBig Oak Flat-Groveland Unified0103053.28TuolumneCurtis Creek Elementary2104626.49TuolumneJamestown Elementary0104422.26TuolumneSonora Union High02010361.93TuolumneSoulsbyville Elementary1005012.00TuolumneSummerville Elementary1004032.48VenturaBriggs Elementary0105751.74VenturaConejo Valley Unified151193650.36VenturaFillmore Unified10037570.27VenturaHueneme Elementary21084580.35VenturaMoorpark Unified13065990.61VenturaOak Park Unified01046380.22VenturaOjai Unified17126393.41VenturaOxnard Union High3181172711.27VenturaRio Elementary03050260.60VenturaSanta Paula Unified43055571.26VenturaSimi Valley Unified150172230.35VenturaVentura County Office of Education54031002.90VenturaVentura Unified5100171250.88YoloDavis Joint Unified22185620.58YoloEsparto Unified0109711.03YoloWashington Unified240110120.54YoloWinters Joint Unified10015250.66YoloWoodland Joint Unified5150101371.97YoloYolo County Office of Education36051917.34YubaMarysville Joint Unified25098040.71YubaWheatland Union High1007101.41YubaYuba County Office of Education57059520.17YubaYuba County Office of Education57059520.17Source: California Commission on Teacher Credentialing / EdSourceEdSource’s trusted, in-depth reporting has never mattered more.
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